Integrated Plant Genetics Inc.
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Gainesville, FL 32653

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Integrated Plant Genetics

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Citrus Canker In-Depth

I. Economic Hosts

II. Pathogens

III. Disease

IV. Symptoms and Signs

V. Disease

VI. Identification

VII. Pathogenicity

VIII. Storage of Organism

IX. Reported Host Range

X. Geographical Range and Spread

XI. Suggested Taxonomic Keys: References [1 and 14]

XII. References:

1. Bradbury, J.F. 1986. Guide to Plant Pathogenic Bacteria, CAB International , Slough. pp. 1-332.

2. Canteros, B.I., Zagory, D. and Stall, R.E. 1985. A medium for cultivation of the B-strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri, cause of cancrosis B in Argentina and Uruguay. Plant Disease 69:122-123.

3. De Feyter, R., Yang, Y. and Gabriel, D.W. 1993. Gene-for-genes interactions between cotton R genes and Xanthomonas campestris pv. malvacearum avr genes. Molec. Plant-Microbe Interact. 6:225-237.

4. Egel, D.S., Graham, J.H. and Stall, R.E. 1991. Genomic relatedness of Xanthomonas campestris strains causing diseases of citrus. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57:2724-2730.

5. Gabriel, D.W. and De Feyter, R. 1992. RFLP analyses and gene tagging for bacterial identification and taxonomy. Pages 51-66 in: Molecular Plant Pathology, Vol. I, A Practical Approach. S.J. Gurr, M.J. McPherson and D.J. Bowles, eds. IRL Press, Oxford.

6. Gabriel, D.W., Hunter, J., Kingsley, M., Miller, J. and Lazo, G. 1988. Clonal population structure of Xanthomonas campestris and genetic diversity among citrus canker strains. Mol. Plant-Microbe Interact. 1:59-65.

7. Gabriel, D.W., Kingsley, M.T., Hunter, J.E. and Gottwald, T.R. 1989. Reinstatement of Xanthomonas citri (ex Hasse) and X. phaseoli (ex Smith) and reclassification of all X. campestris pv. citri strains. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 39:14-22.

8. Gabriel, D.W. and Rolfe, B.G. 1990. Working models of specific recognition in plant-microbe interactions. Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. 28:365-391.

9. Gottwald, T.R., Alvarez, A.M., Hartung, J.S. and Benedict, A.A. 1991. Diversity of Xanthomonas campestris pv. citrumelo strains associated with epidemics of citrus bacterial spot in Florida citrus nurseries: correlation of detached leaf, monoclonal antibody and restriction fragment length polymorphism assays. Phytopathology 81:749-753.

10. Gottwald, T.R., Graham, J.H., Civerolo, E.L., Barrett, H.C., and Hearn, C.J. 1993. Differential host range reaction of citrus and citrus relatives to citrus canker and citrus bacterial spot determined by leaf mesophyll susceptibility. Plant Dis. 77: 1004-1009.

11. Lopez, J.G.G. 1988. Asociacion de Alternaria sp con la "bacteriosis" del limon Mexicano Citrus aurantifolia swingle. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia 6:7-17.

12. Rodriguez, G.S., Garza-Lopez, J.G., Stapleton, J.J. and Civerolo, E.L. 1985. Citrus bacteriosis in Mexico. Plant Disease 69:808-810.

13. Rudolph, K., Roy, M.A., Sasser, M., Stead, D.E., Davis, M., Swings, J. and Gossele, F. 1990. Isolation of bacteria. Pages 45-94 in: Methods in Phytobacteriology. Z. Klement, K. Rudolph and D.C. Sands, eds. Akademiai Kiado, Budapest.

14. Schaad, N.W. 1988. Initial identification of common genera. Pages 1-15 in: Plant Pathogenic Bacteria. N.W. Schaad, eds. APS Press, St. Paul.

15. Schoulties, C.L., Civerolo, E.L., Miller, J.W., Stall, R.E., Krass, C.J., Poe, S.R. and DuCharme, E.P. 1987. Citrus Canker in Florida. Plant Disease 71:388-394.

16. Simmons, E.G. 1990. Alternaria themes and variations (27-53). Mycotaxon 37:79-119.

17. Sleesman,J.P. and Leben,C. 1978. Preserving phytopathogenic bacteria at -70 C or with silica gel. Plant Dis. Reptr. 62:910-913.

18. Stapleton, J.J. and Garza-Lopez, J.G. 1988. Epidemiology of a citrus leaf-spot disease in Colima, Mexico. Phytopathology 78:440-443.

19. Swarup, S., De Feyter, R., Brlansky, R.H. and Gabriel, D.W. 1991. A pathogenicity locus from Xanthomonas citri enables strains from several pathovars of X. campestris to elicit cankerlike lesions on citrus. Phytopathology 81:802-809.

20. Swarup, S., Yang, Y., Kingsley, M.T. and Gabriel, D.W. 1992. A Xanthomonas citri pathogenicity gene, pthA, pleiotropically encodes gratuitous avirulence on nonhosts. Molec. Plant-Microbe Interact. 5:204-213.

21. Vauterin, L., Swings, J., Kersters, K., Gillis, M., Mew, T.W., Schroth, M.N., Palleroni, N.J., Hildebrand, D.C., Stead, D.E., Civerolo, E.L., Hayward, A.C., Maraite, H., Stall, R.E., Vidaver, A.K. and Bradbury, J.F. 1990. Towards an improved taxonomy of Xanthomonas. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 40:312-316.

22. Wayne, L.G., Brenner, D.J., Colwell, R.R., Grimont, P.A.D., Kandler, O., Krichevsky, M.I., Moore, L.H., Moore, W.E.C., Murray, R.G.E., Stackebrandt, E., Starr, M.P. and Truper, H.G. 1987. Report of the Ad Hoc Committee on reconciliation of approaches to bacterial systematics. Int. J. System. Bacteriol. 37:463-4.

23. Gottwald, TR, Graham, JH, and Schubert T.S. 1997. An epidemiological analysis of the spread of citrus canker in urban Miami, Florida, and synergistic interaction with the Asian citrus leaf miner. Fruits 52: 371-378.

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